The link between edu­ca­tion and empow­er­ment –at the core of the UN action in devel­op­ing world and of the EU in South­ern Europe– can largely profit from the com­par­i­son. What was the impact of the mass school­ing of girls in the two con­ti­nents on social and polit­i­cal par­tic­i­pa­tion as on employment?